Introduction to Biotechnology
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Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The UN  Convention on Biological Diversity has come up with one of many definitions of biotechnology: "Biotechnology means any  technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products  or processes for specific use."

Traditional pharmaceutical drugs are small chemicals molecules that treat the symptoms of a disease or illness - one molecule  directed at a single target. Biopharmaceuticals are large biological molecules known as proteins and these target the  underlying mechanisms and pathways of a malady; it is a relatively young industry. They can deal with targets in humans that  are not accessible with traditional medicines. A patient typically is dosed with a small molecule via a tablet while a large  molecule is typically injected. Small molecules are manufactured by chemistry but large molecules are created by living cells: for example, - bacteria cells,  yeast cell,animal cells.



























Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast for the  production of substances like insulin or antibiotics. It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as  Bt corn. Genetically altered mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, are also widely used to manufacture  pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology application is the development of plant-made pharmaceuticals.

Biotechnology is also commonly associated with landmark breakthroughs in new medical therapies to treat diabetes, Hepatitis  B, Hepatitis C, Cancers, Arthritis, Haemophilia, Bone Fractures, Multiple Sclerosis, Cardiovascular as well as molecular  diagnostic devices than can be used to define the patient population. Herceptin, is the first drug approved for use with a  matching diagnostic test and is used to treat breast cancer in women whose cancer cells express the protein HER2.

Biotechnology in one form or another has flourished since prehistoric times. When the first human beings realized that they could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use biotechnology. The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine, or that milk could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of biotechnology. When the first bakers found that they could make a soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker, they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists. The first animal breeders, realizing that different physical traits could be either magnified or lost by mating appropriate pairs of animals, engaged in the manipulations of biotechnology.

What then is biotechnology? The term brings to mind many different things. Some think of developing new types of animals. Others dream of almost unlimited sources of human therapeutic drugs. Still others envision the possibility of growing crops that are more nutritious and naturally pest-resistant to feed a rapidly growing world population. This question elicits almost as many first-thought responses as there are people to whom the question can be posed.

In its purest form, the term "biotechnology" refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment. Prehistoric biotechnologists did this as they used yeast cells to raise bread dough and to ferment alcoholic beverages, and bacterial cells to make cheeses and yogurts and as they bred their strong, productive animals to make even stronger and more productive offspring.

Throughout human history, we have learned a great deal about the different organisms that our ancestors used so effectively. The marked increase in our understanding of these organisms and their cell products gains us the ability to control the many functions of various cells and organisms. Using the techniques of gene splicing and recombinant DNA technology, we can now actually combine the genetic elements of two or more living cells. Functioning lengths of DNA can be taken from one organism and placed into the cells of another organism. As a result, for example, we can cause bacterial cells to produce human molecules. Cows can produce more milk for the same amount of feed. And we can synthesize therapeutic molecules that have never before existed.
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