A network adapter board is a circuit board or another hardware component that connects the network directly with the terminal equipment. It can be a plug-in board for the bus system in the terminal equipment. The network adapter board is the physical interface to the communications network. It includes the appropriate jacks for connection to the physical medium.
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is an interface developed by Microsoft to link and embed data between different applications. In this way external, but OLE-compatible texts, graphics or tables can be embedded in other OLE applications. Linking OLE compatible data is carried out by link to the appropriate file. The original file remains untouched. During embedding a copy of the file is embedded in the document.
OSI are internationally-agreed standards which open systems should work with and define the rules for implementing these norms. Communications systems are a combination of network hardware and network and systems software in a group of networked devices that permit free exchange of information between these devices on the basis of joint protocol agreements and interfaces, independently of the type of these devices or how they are equipped. Systems that implement OSI protocols are an example of this. The OSI standards are freely available and not protected by licences.
A data packet is a defined arrangement of characters as part of the data network, that are treated as a unit in transmission services with data packet transmission. As well as the payload data, data packets also include control information for addressing, sequence of transmission, flow control and error adjustment at all protocol levels. A data packet can be of a predetermined or variable length, but a maximum length is specified. If the whole destination address is included in each data packet, it is called a datagramme. On the other hand in a virtual connection only the first data packet has the whole address, whereas in the following data packets an assignment is made to the appropriate connection.
In the floor distribution point the patch cable creates a flexible connection between floor distribution point and the horizontal wiring. Patch cables are FO cables or copper cables and are also called jumper cords. Patch cables should be very flexible, have a tight bending radius and if possible should max the fixed cable. Patch cables are taken into account in the ISO/IEC 11801 and EN 50173 standards, but are not included in the transmission features specified for the link classes. This should be changed when the cable standards are revised. The patch cable should then, at a length of up to 5 m, be part of a new definition, the channel specification and included in all the transmission features. The jumper cord and a connection cable, also 5 m long, will then be taken into account in this specification.
A single frame is sent via the full-duplex mode to the available stations, to signify that transmissions are to be reduced.
Physical Layer device. This term is mostly used for a transceiver in Fast and Gigabit Ethernet.
The Physical Layer (PHY) is the top sublayer or physical layer consisting of the PMD-sublayer and the PHY-sublayer. The PHY-sublayer is underneath the MAC layer and encodes, decodes and synchronises the station with the transmission frequency and the regeneration of the transmission frequency.
A type of connection where a connection is generated between two pieces of terminal equipment. Point-to-Point connections occur in the networked environment, in radio broadcasting in beam radio and in the service area. In networks, where point-to-point connections are concerned, instead of a user network interface, an interface to a central facility in the network can also be operated. The connection permanent or on demand.
Connector on a hardware unit. Usually an input/output channel on the computer or other hardware unit such as modem, router, hub or multiplexer.
Port mirroring means that the data traffic of a switch port can be mirrored, in order to detect errors or to measure throughput, onto another port to which a management station can be connected.
The Promiscuous Mode is a particular receiver mode for network equipment. In this mode the device reads all the incoming data traffic sent to the network interface that has been switched to this mode and transmits the data to be processed to the operating system. Normally this device would only process packets directed to itself, which is done for example in Ethernet networks by evaluating the MAC address.
The delay is the time that the signal requires to go from one point in a transmission channel to another. Depending on the transmission medium, the delay is the speed of light, as in satellite transmission, or less when transmitting in data cables and FO cables. It does not depend on the speed of light and depends mostly on the dielectric constant of the medium or in FO cables on the refraction.
A data transmission protocol establishes the rules for the exchange of information in the form of a directory. This includes all formats, parameters and specifications for a complete, perfect and effective transmission of data. Protocols include conventions on data formats, times and how errors are treated when exchanging data between computers. A protocol is a convention on setting up connections, monitoring connections and terminating connections. Different protocols are necessary in a data connection. Protocols can be assigned to each layer of the reference model. There are communication protocols for the bottom four layers of the reference model and higher protocols for control and data provisioning and its application.
Quality of Service (QoS)
QoS are all procedures that influence the flow of data in LANs and WANs so that the service arrives at the receiver in a particular quality. The ITU has developed a hierarchical QoS model, which takes both the technical aspects of the service into account and the availability and handling of the terminal equipment. The ITU defined three QoS classes on this basis.
Ring topology is the simplest and quickest way of achieving network redundancy. RapidRing™ technology was developed because there was no standard. This provides technical staff in industrial automation with a simple and effective way of achieving redundancy. RapidRing™ provides redundancy in the event of a single error. The devices connected to form a ring, are actually wired in a logical ring. As the ring structure would lead to a loop in the network, a link would logically be deactivated (backup link).
Rapid Spanning Tree
The IEEE Standard Rapid Spanning Tree protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.3w) is - apart from RapidRing™ - another option to provide redundancy in a network. The RSTP makes a structure similar to the network possible. In this way multi-redundancy can be achieved. Using RSTP in a network is not as simple as using RapidRing™, but RSTP does have a lot of interesting options.
Redundant networks are usually set up with Rapid Spanning Tree or RapidRing™ technologies. Both systems have their advantages in the areas they are to be used. In industrial automation it is often quite simple to wire ring structures. Using RSTP in a ring of 15 or more switches will not provide satisfactory speed. When using RapidRing™ in this type of installation, switching times of less than 300 ms and also larger rings are possible.
Remote Management of a switch from every network station equipped with Telnet or web browsers. Remote Management assumes that each switch has its own IP address.
A repeater is an active component that takes on the regeneration functions in Ethernet LANs and operates on the bit transmission layer.
A repeater with more than two ports. This term is simplified by referring to it as a hub.
The advantages of the RJ45 slot system are its compactness and simplicity. It is using for horizontal wiring and wiring work places. The RJ45 slot system is an eight pole miniature slot system for use in connections with SDP and UTP cables. The plug's eight contacts have serial numbers and are protected from corrosion and mechanical stress with a thin gold layer. The contact points are situated between guide rails the cable is connected with insulation piercing. On the side opposite to the contact side, the RJ45 plug has a fluke that locks the slot when sticking it into a RJ45 jack.
The SC-plug is a small polarised push/pull plug with high packing density. This LWL-plug is square and can be used for multimode fibres and monomode fibres. Typical insertion loss is at 0.2 dB to 0.4 dB, operating loss in monomode fibres at 50 dB and multimode fibres at least 40 dB. If monomode fibres with skew angle coupling are used instead of oval coupling, the operating loss increases to at least 70 dB. In the duplex type, as a SC-Duplex plug, the plug must be used where there is fibre-optic wiring to the terminal equipment. It is also increasingly used in new installations and in FCS and ATM applications.
The term segment has many meanings. In networks a segment is a network section delimited by bridges, routers or switches. Where LANs are concerned, a LAN segment or a collision domain is referred to. In token ring networks the transmission section between two neighbouring data stations is meant. In the TCP specifications, a segment describes a single information unit on the communication network.
This is an important Ethernet value. The slot time is twice the speed of the signal propagation time between the two networks that are farthest away from one another and the minimum packet length of 64 bytes or 512 bits. At a frequency clock speed of 10 Mbps, or a frequency clock cycle of a 100 ns, this produces a slot time of 51.2 µs. At 100 Mbps the frequency is 10 ns, so therefore the slot time for the same packet length is 51.2 µs. The greater the slot time, the poorer the Ethernet performance.
The SNMP protocol means that central network management for many network components is possible. SNMP's main objectives are to decrease the complexity of the management functions, to extend the protocol and to be independent of any network components. The SNMP protocol supports monitoring, controlling and administration of networks. According to the SNMP architecture model a network is divided into network management stations (NMS) and network components. The network management stations carry out applications to monitor and control the network components. The network components have management agents, which carry out management functions.
Spanning Tree Protocol
-> see Rapid Spanning Tree.
This LWL-plug (IEC-SC 86B) specified by AT&T is suitable for both monomode fibres and multimode fibres. The ST-plug is a commonly-available plug, used in LANs. It uses a bayonet lock as its locking system. In this LWL-plug the FO cables is guided through a ceramic or metal ferrule with a pin diameter of 2.5 mm and is prevented from twisting by a metal pin. The ceramic ferrule has been grounded to make its contact area convex. A spring means that there is constant contact to the front of the fibres to be connected.
In star topology the transmission stations are connected in a star shape to a central node. Star topologies can only exchange data indirectly via the central node. There is a difference between active and passive star systems. In the former, the middle node is a computer that takes over relaying the messages. Its capacity determines the performance of the network. For example: private exchanges. Passive systems only have one node in the middle that combines the routes. This node does not have any exchange role, its purpose is signal regeneration. Passive star systems can for example be operated with TDMA, CSMA/CD or token access procedures.
A type of cable where the cable connections at both ends are the same. This type of cable is mostly used to connect devices such as switches with the station. Straight-through is the normal way of wiring cables - in contrast to crossover cables.
Each hardware component in a network and the terminal equipment connected to the network. Server, router, telephone, fax machine etc and all communication devices connected with a network adapter (NIC).
Switches are network components that have switching functions. These switching functions can also take place as exchange functions in long-distance networks and in local networks. In long-distance networks the local exchanges have local switches and the remote exchanges have central switches.
The configuration of the network nodes and connections is called the physical topology. The logical connections of network nodes possible are referred to as the logical topology. This states which node pairs can communicate with one another and whether they have a direct physical connection. The physical and logical topology does not have to be identical in networks. As a rule network topologies can be divided into two classes, where in the first class connections from one node to the next one are set up and in the second class all network nodes are directly connected to the transmission medium. The most well-known network topologies are ring topology, bus topology, tree topology and star topology. There is also meshed topology in long-distance networks
Transceiver is a compound word made up of transmitter and receiver and signifying a transmitting/receiving device. The transceiver implements network access of a station to the Ethernet and is sometimes called a MAU.
The term trunking occurs in Ethernet networks but also in private exchanges and in mobile communication. In large Ethernet networks trunking is the parallel switching of several Ethernet links. The transmission via the parallel links is used to scale the bandwidth and is activated by the spanning tree algorithm. As the spanning tree protocol is unsuitable for granular bandwidth scaling, this technology has been standardised in the IEE 802.3ad working group and called "Aggregation of multiple link segments".
A twisted-pair cable is a symmetrical copper cable consisting of two wires that are twisted together. The conductors consist of insulated copper conductors. In contrast to asymmetrical cables, such as coaxial cables, symmetrical cables do not have reference potential. The advantage is that wires can be arranged to prevent interference between the lines.
Virtual networks or virtual LANs (VLAN) are a technological concept for implementing logical work groups within a network. This type of network is implemented using LAN-switching or virtual routing on the link layer or on the network layer.
Full Duplex Operation
In full duplex operation or duplex operation both communications partners can communicate bi-directionally at the same time.
A web server is a server programme that provides files via HTTP protocol. These files are usually websites, pictures and style sheets. It makes no difference to the webserver what type of files it supplies. Each time a web site is requested (for example by clicking a link), the browser sends an HTTP query to a web server. This web server can then send the site requested back. The standard ports for the web server are 84 HTTP protocol and 443 for HTTPS, the encrypted HTTP (for example with SSL). Usually all page requests are saved in a log file, from where - by using log file analysis - different statistics on access can be generated. However these do not give the full picture, as HTTP is a connectionless protocol.