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Chemical Process Equipment
CHAPTER 11

SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION

Processes and Equipment
Theory of Filtration
  Compressible Cakes
Resistance to Filtration
  Filter Medium
  Cake Resistivity
  Compressibility-Permeability (CP) Cell Measurements
  Another Form of Pressure Dependence
  Pretreatment of Slurries
Thickening and Clarifying
Laboratory Testing and Scale-up
  Compression-Permeability Cell
  The SCFT Concept
  Scale-up
Illustrations of Equipment
Applications and Performance of Equipment
References








CHAPTER 12

DISINTEGRATION, AGGLOMERATION, AND SIZE SEPARATION OF PARTICULATE SOLIDS

Screening
  Revolving Screens or Trommels
  Capacity of Screens
Classification with Streams of Air or Water
  Air Classifiers
  Wet Classifiers
Size Reduction
Equipment for Size Reduction
  Crushers
  Roll Crushers
Particle Size Enlargement
  Tumblers
  Roll Compacting and Briquetting
  Tabletting
  Extrusion Processes
  Prilling
  Fluidized and Spouted Beds
  Sintering and Crushing
References



CHAPTER 13

DISTILLATION AND GAS ABSORPTION

Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
  Relative Volatility
  Binary x-y Diagrams
Single-Stage Flash Calculations
  Bubblepoint Temperature and Pressure
  Dewpoint Temperature and Pressure
  Flash at Fixed Temperature and Pressure
  Flash at Fixed Enthalpy and Pressure
  Equilibria with Ks Dependent on Composition
Evaporation or Simple Distillation
  Multicomponent Mixtures
Binary Distillation
  Material and Energy Balances
  Constant Molal Overflow
  Basic Distillation Problem
  Unequal Molal Heats of Vaporization
  Material and Energy Balance Basis
  Algebraic Method
Batch Distillation
  Material Balances
Multicomponent Separation: General Considerations
  Sequencing of Columns
  Number of Free Variables
Estimation of Reflux and Number of Trays (Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland Method)
  Minimum Trays
  Distribution of Nonkeys
  Minimum Reflux
  Operating Reflux
  Actual Number of Theoretical Trays
  Feed Tray Location
  Tray Efficiencies
Absorption Factor Shortcut Method of Edmister
Separations in Packed Towers
  Mass Transfer Coefficients
  Distillation
  Absorption or Stripping
Basis for Computer Evaluation of Multicomponent Separations
  Specifications
  The MESH Equations
  The Wang-Henke Bubblepoint Method
  The SR (Sum-Rates) Method
  SC (Simultaneous Correction) Method
Special Kinds of Distillation Processes
  Petroleum Fractionation
  Extractive Distillation
  Azeotropic Distillation
  Molecular Distillation
Tray Towers
  Countercurrent Trays
  Sieve Trays
  Valve Trays
  Bubblecap Trays
Packed Towers
  Kinds of Packings
  Flooding and Allowable Loads
  Liquid Distribution
  Liquid Holdup
  Pressure Drop
Efficiencies of Trays and Packings
  Trays
  Packed Towers
References




CHAPTER 14

EXTRACTION AND LEACHING

Equilibrium Relations
Calculation of Stage Requirements
  Single Stage Extraction
  Crosscurrent Extraction
  Immiscible Solvents
Countercurrent Operation
  Minimum Solvent/Feed Ratio
  Extract Reflux
  Minimum Reflux
  Minimum Stages
Leaching of Solids
Numerical Calculation of Multicomponent Extraction
  Initial Estimates
  Procedure
Equipment for Extraction
  Choice of Disperse Phase
  Mixer-Settlers
  Spray Towers
  Packed Towers
  Sieve Tray Towers
  Pulsed Packed and Sieve Tray Towers
  Reciprocating Tray Towers
  Rotating Disk Contactor (RDC)
  Other Rotary Agitated Towers
  Other Kinds of Extractors
  Leaching Equipment
References




CHAPTER 15

ADSORPTION AND ION EXCHANGE

Adsorption Equilibria
Ion Exchange Equilibria
Adsorption Behavior in Packed Beds
  Regeneration
Adsorption Design and Operating Practices
Ion Exchange Design and Operating Practices
  Electrodialysis
Production Scale Chromatography
Equipment and Processes
  Gas Adsorption
  Liquid Phase Adsorption
  Ion Exchange
  Ion Exchange Membranes and Electrodialysis
  Chromatographic Equipment
References




CHAPTER 16

CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTIONS AND MELTS

Solubilities and Equilibria
  Phase Diagrams
  Enthalpy Balances
Crystal Size Distribution
The Process of Crystallization
  Conditions of Precipitation
  Supersaturation
  Growth Rates
  Multiple Stirred Tanks in Series
  Applicability of the CSTC Model
The Ideal Stirred Tank
Kinds of Crystallizers
Melt Crystallization and Purification
  Multistage Processing
  The Metallwerk Buchs Process
  Purification Processes
References




CHAPTER 17

CHEMICAL REACTORS

Design Basis and Space Velocity
  Design Basis
  Reaction Times
Rate Equations and Operating Modes
Material and Energy Balances of Reactors
Nonideal Flow Patterns
  Residence Time Distribution
  Conversion in Segregated and Maximum Mixed Flows
  Conversion in Segregated Flow and CSTR Batteries
  Dispersion Model
  Laminar and Related Flow Patterns
Selection of Catalysts
  Heterogeneous Catalysts
  Kinds of Catalysts
  Kinds of Catalyzed Organic Reactions
  Physical Characteristics of Solid Catalysts
  Catalyst Effectiveness
Types and Examples of Reactors
  Stirred Tanks
  Tubular Flow Reactors
  Gas-Liquid Reactions
  Fixed Bed Reactors
  Moving Beds
  Kilns and Hearth Furnaces
  Fluidized Bed Reactors
Heat Transfer in Reactors
  Stirred Tanks
  Packed Bed Thermal Conductivity
  Heat Transfer Coefficient at Walls, to Particles, and Overall Fluidized Beds
Classes of Reaction Processes and Their Equipment
  Homogeneous Gas Reactions
  Homogeneous Liquid Reactions
  Liquid-Liquid Reactions
  Gas-Liquid Reactions
  Noncatalytic Reactions with Solids
  Fluidized Beds of Noncatalytic Solids
  Circulating Gas or Solids
  Fixed Bed Solid Catalysis
  Fluidized Bed Catalysis
  Gas-Liquid Reactions with Solid Catalysts
References




CHAPTER 18

PROCESS VESSELS

Drums
Fractionator Reflux Drums
Liquid-Liquid Separators
  Coalescence
  Other Methods
Gas-Liquid Separators
  Droplet Sizes
  Rate of Settling
  Empty Drums
  Wire Mesh Pad Deentrainers
Cyclone Separators
Storage Tanks
Mechanical Design of Process Vessels
  Design Pressure and Temperature
  Shells and Heads
  Formulas for Strength Calculations
References






CHAPTER 19

OTHER TOPICS

Membrane Processes
  Membranes
  Equipment Configurations
  Applications
  Gas Permeation
Foam Separation and Froth Flotation
  Foam Fractionation
  Froth Flotation
Sublimation and Freeze Drying
  Equipment
  Freeze Drying
Parametric Pumping
Separations by Thermal Diffusion
Electrochemical Syntheses
  Electrochemical Reactions
  Fuel Cells
  Cells for Synthesis of Chemicals
Fermentation Processing
  Processing
  Operating Conditions
  Reactors
References



CHAPTER 20

COSTS OF INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT
References


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Chemical Process Equipment
Description - - Chemical Process Equipment
Comprehensive and practical guide to the selection and design of a wide range of chemical process equipment. Emphasis is placed on real-world process design and performance of equipment. Provides examples of successful applications, with numerous drawings, graphs, and tables to show the functioning and performance of the equipment. Equipment rating forms and manufacturers' questionnaires are collected to illustrate the data essential to process design. Includes a chapter on equipment cost and addresses economic concerns.

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